Bottled at the Source: Recapturing the Essence of Academic Support as a Primary Tool of Education Equity for Minority Law Students

Document Type

Law Review Article

Publication Date



academic success programs, diverse campus environment


"Part I of this paper focuses on the history of academic support programs, exploring (i) their origins in law school integration efforts and their connection to a desire to improve the academic performance of African-Americans and other students of color, and (ii) the drift away from a race/ethnicity-based focus toward a race-neutral (i.e., low performance) model. Part II identifies the weaknesses in a race-neutral approach—namely, the failure to address the impact of implicit bias and stereotype threat, psychological dynamics that can have a dramatic effect on academic performance. Part III sets forth a proposal for an academic support program that includes an explicit focus on minority performance, accounting for the existence of stereotype threat and implicit bias."